class views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max


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  1. cis7 sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/ views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max
  2. cle7 sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/ views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max
  3. elmsmedia7 sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/ views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max
  4. icor7 sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/ views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max
  5. meedjum_blog7 sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/ views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max
  6. mooc7 sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/ views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max

Relationship handler that allows a groupwise maximum of the linked in table. For a definition, see: In lay terms, instead of joining to get all matching records in the linked table, we get only one record, a 'representative record' picked according to a given criteria.

Example: Suppose we have a term view that gives us the terms: Horse, Cat, Aardvark. We wish to show for each term the most recent node of that term. What we want is some kind of relationship from term to node. But a regular relationship will give us all the nodes for each term, giving the view multiple rows per term. What we want is just one representative node per term, the node that is the 'best' in some way: eg, the most recent, the most commented on, the first in alphabetical order.

This handler gives us that kind of relationship from term to node. The method of choosing the 'best' implemented with a sort that the user selects in the relationship settings.

So if we want our term view to show the most commented node for each term, add the relationship and in its options, pick the 'Comment count' sort.

Relationship definition

  • 'outer field': The outer field to substitute into the correlated subquery. This must be the full field name, not the alias. Eg: 'term_data.tid'.
  • 'argument table', 'argument field': These options define a views argument that the subquery must add to itself to filter by the main view. Example: the main view shows terms, this handler is being used to get to the nodes base table. Your argument must be 'term_node', 'tid', as this is the argument that should be added to a node view to filter on terms.

A note on performance: This relationship uses a correlated subquery, which is expensive. Subsequent versions of this handler could also implement the alternative way of doing this, with a join -- though this looks like it could be pretty messy to implement. This is also an expensive method, so providing both methods and allowing the user to choose which one works fastest for their data might be the best way. If your use of this relationship handler is likely to result in large data sets, you might want to consider storing statistics in a separate table, in the same way as node_comment_statistics.


Expanded class hierarchy of views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max


Contains filters are case sensitive
Namesort descending Modifiers Type Description
views_handler::$table_alias public property The alias of the table of this handler which is used in the query.
views_handler::accept_exposed_input function Take input from exposed handlers and assign to this handler, if necessary.
views_handler::access function Check whether current user has access to this handler.
views_handler::admin_summary function Provide text for the administrative summary
views_handler::broken function Determine if the handler is considered 'broken', meaning it's a a placeholder used when a handler can't be found.
views_handler::can_expose function Determine if a handler can be exposed.
views_handler::case_transform function Transform a string by a certain method.
views_handler::ensure_my_table function Ensure the main table for this handler is in the query. This is used a lot.
views_handler::exposed_form function Render our chunk of the exposed handler form when selecting
views_handler::exposed_info function Get information about the exposed form for the form renderer.
views_handler::exposed_submit function Submit the exposed handler form
views_handler::exposed_validate function Validate the exposed handler form
views_handler::expose_form function Form for exposed handler options.
views_handler::expose_options function Set new exposed option defaults when exposed setting is flipped on.
views_handler::expose_submit function Perform any necessary changes to the form exposes prior to storage. There is no need for this function to actually store the data.
views_handler::expose_validate function Validate the options form.
views_handler::extra_options function Provide defaults for the handler.
views_handler::extra_options_form function Provide a form for setting options.
views_handler::extra_options_submit function Perform any necessary changes to the form values prior to storage. There is no need for this function to actually store the data.
views_handler::extra_options_validate function Validate the options form.
views_handler::get_field function Shortcut to get a handler's raw field value.
views_handler::get_join function Get the join object that should be used for this handler.
views_handler::groupby_form function Provide a form for aggregation settings.
views_handler::groupby_form_submit function Perform any necessary changes to the form values prior to storage. There is no need for this function to actually store the data.
views_handler::has_extra_options function If a handler has 'extra options' it will get a little settings widget and another form called extra_options.
views_handler::is_a_group function Returns TRUE if the exposed filter works like a grouped filter.
views_handler::is_exposed function Determine if this item is 'exposed', meaning it provides form elements to let users modify the view.
views_handler::multiple_exposed_input function Define if the exposed input has to be submitted multiple times. This is TRUE when exposed filters grouped are using checkboxes as widgets.
views_handler::needs_style_plugin function Determine if the argument needs a style plugin.
views_handler::options_submit function Perform any necessary changes to the form values prior to storage. There is no need for this function to actually store the data.
views_handler::options_validate function Validate the options form.
views_handler::placeholder function Provides a unique placeholders for handlers.
views_handler::post_execute function Run after the view is executed, before the result is cached.
views_handler::pre_query function Run before the view is built.
views_handler::sanitize_value function Sanitize the value for output.
views_handler::set_relationship function Called just prior to query(), this lets a handler set up any relationship it needs.
views_handler::show_expose_button function Shortcut to display the expose/hide button.
views_handler::show_expose_form function Shortcut to display the exposed options form.
views_handler::store_exposed_input function If set to remember exposed input in the session, store it there.
views_handler::ui_name function Return a string representing this handler's name in the UI.
views_handler::validate function Validates the handler against the complete View.
views_handler_relationship::init function Init handler to let relationships live on tables other than the table they operate on. Overrides views_handler::init
views_handler_relationship::label function Get this field's label.
views_handler_relationship::use_group_by function You can't groupby a relationship. Overrides views_handler::use_group_by
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::alter_subquery_condition function Recursive helper to add a namespace to conditions.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::condition_namespace function Helper function to namespace query pieces.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::get_temporary_view function Helper function to create a pseudo view.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::left_query function Generate a subquery given the user options, as set in the options. These are passed in rather than picked up from the object because we generate the subquery when the options are saved, rather than when the view is run. This saves considerable time.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::options_form function Extends the relationship's basic options, allowing the user to pick a sort and an order for it.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::options_form_submit function When the form is submitted, take sure to clear the subquery string cache.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::option_definition function Defines default values for options.
views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max::query function Called to implement a relationship in a query. This is mostly a copy of our parent's query() except for this bit with the join class.
views_object::construct function Views handlers use a special construct function so that we can more easily construct them with variable arguments.
views_object::destroy function
views_object::export_option function
views_object::export_options function
views_object::export_option_always function Always exports the option, regardless of the default value.
views_object::options Deprecated function Set default options on this object. Called by the constructor in a complex chain to deal with backward compatibility.
views_object::set_default_options function Set default options. For backward compatibility, it sends the options array; this is a feature that will likely disappear at some point.
views_object::set_definition function Let the handler know what its full definition is.
views_object::unpack_options function Unpack options over our existing defaults, drilling down into arrays so that defaults don't get totally blown away.
views_object::unpack_translatable function Unpack a single option definition.
views_object::unpack_translatables function Unpacks each handler to store translatable texts.
views_object::_set_option_defaults function


sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/handlers/, line 56
Relationship for groupwise maximum handler.

View source
class views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max extends views_handler_relationship {

   * Defines default values for options.
  function option_definition() {
    $options = parent::option_definition();

    $options['subquery_sort'] = array('default' => NULL);
    // Descending more useful.
    $options['subquery_order'] = array('default' => 'DESC');
    $options['subquery_regenerate'] = array(
      'default' => FALSE,
      'bool' => TRUE,
    $options['subquery_view'] = array('default' => FALSE);
    $options['subquery_namespace'] = array('default' => FALSE);

    return $options;

   * Extends the relationship's basic options, allowing the user to pick
   * a sort and an order for it.
  function options_form(&$form, &$form_state) {
    parent::options_form($form, $form_state);

    // Get the sorts that apply to our base.
    $sorts = views_fetch_fields($this->definition['base'], 'sort');
    foreach ($sorts as $sort_id => $sort) {
      $sort_options[$sort_id] = "$sort[group]: $sort[title]";
    $base_table_data = views_fetch_data($this->definition['base']);

    $form['subquery_sort'] = array(
      '#type' => 'select',
      '#title' => t('Representative sort criteria'),
      // Provide the base field as sane default sort option.
      '#default_value' => !empty($this->options['subquery_sort']) ? $this->options['subquery_sort'] : $this->definition['base'] . '.' . $base_table_data['table']['base']['field'],
      '#options' => $sort_options,
      '#description' => theme('advanced_help_topic', array('module' => 'views', 'topic' => 'relationship-representative')) . t("The sort criteria is applied to the data brought in by the relationship to determine how a representative item is obtained for each row. For example, to show the most recent node for each user, pick 'Content: Updated date'."),

    $form['subquery_order'] = array(
      '#type' => 'radios',
      '#title' => t('Representative sort order'),
      '#description' => t("The ordering to use for the sort criteria selected above."),
      '#options' => array(
        'ASC' => t('Ascending'),
        'DESC' => t('Descending'),
      '#default_value' => $this->options['subquery_order'],

    $form['subquery_namespace'] = array(
      '#type' => 'textfield',
      '#title' => t('Subquery namespace'),
      '#description' => t('Advanced. Enter a namespace for the subquery used by this relationship.'),
      '#default_value' => $this->options['subquery_namespace'],

    // WIP: This stuff doens't work yet: namespacing issues.
    // A list of suitable views to pick one as the subview.
    $views = array('' => '<none>');
    $all_views = views_get_all_views();
    foreach ($all_views as $view) {
      // Only get views that are suitable:
      // - base must the base that our relationship joins towards
      // - must have fields.
      if ($view->base_table == $this->definition['base'] && !empty($view->display['default']->display_options['fields'])) {
        // TODO: check the field is the correct sort?
        // or let users hang themselves at this stage and check later?
        if ($view->type == 'Default') {
          $views[t('Default Views')][$view->name] = $view->name;
        else {
          $views[t('Existing Views')][$view->name] = $view->name;

    $form['subquery_view'] = array(
      '#type' => 'select',
      '#title' => t('Representative view'),
      '#default_value' => $this->options['subquery_view'],
      '#options' => $views,
      '#description' => t('Advanced. Use another view to generate the relationship subquery. This allows you to use filtering and more than one sort. If you pick a view here, the sort options above are ignored. Your view must have the ID of its base as its only field, and should have some kind of sorting.'),

    $form['subquery_regenerate'] = array(
      '#type' => 'checkbox',
      '#title' => t('Generate subquery each time view is run.'),
      '#default_value' => $this->options['subquery_regenerate'],
      '#description' => t('Will re-generate the subquery for this relationship every time the view is run, instead of only when these options are saved. Use for testing if you are making changes elsewhere. WARNING: seriously impairs performance.'),

   * Helper function to create a pseudo view.
   * We use this to obtain our subquery SQL.
  function get_temporary_view() {
    $view = new view();
    $view->vid = 'new'; // @todo: what's this?
    $view->base_table = $this->definition['base'];
    return $view;

   * When the form is submitted, take sure to clear the subquery string cache.
  function options_form_submit(&$form, &$form_state) {
    $cid = 'views_relationship_groupwise_max:' . $this->view->name . ':' . $this->view->current_display . ':' . $this->options['id'];
    cache_clear_all($cid, 'cache_views_data');

   * Generate a subquery given the user options, as set in the options.
   * These are passed in rather than picked up from the object because we
   * generate the subquery when the options are saved, rather than when the view
   * is run. This saves considerable time.
   * @param $options
   *   An array of options:
   *    - subquery_sort: the id of a views sort.
   *    - subquery_order: either ASC or DESC.
   * @return
   *    The subquery SQL string, ready for use in the main query.
  function left_query($options) {
    // Either load another view, or create one on the fly.
    if ($options['subquery_view']) {
      $temp_view = views_get_view($options['subquery_view']);
      // Remove all fields from default display
    else {
      // Create a new view object on the fly, which we use to generate a query
      // object and then get the SQL we need for the subquery.
      $temp_view = $this->get_temporary_view();

      // Add the sort from the options to the default display.
      // This is broken, in that the sort order field also gets added as a
      // select field. See
      // We work around this further down.
      $sort = $options['subquery_sort'];
      list($sort_table, $sort_field) = explode('.', $sort);
      $sort_options = array('order' => $options['subquery_order']);
      $temp_view->add_item('default', 'sort', $sort_table, $sort_field, $sort_options);

    // Get the namespace string.
    $temp_view->namespace = (!empty($options['subquery_namespace'])) ? '_' . $options['subquery_namespace'] : '_INNER';
    $this->subquery_namespace = (!empty($options['subquery_namespace'])) ? '_' . $options['subquery_namespace'] : 'INNER';

    // The value we add here does nothing, but doing this adds the right tables
    // and puts in a WHERE clause with a placeholder we can grab later.
    $temp_view->args[] = '**CORRELATED**';

    // Add the base table ID field.
    $views_data = views_fetch_data($this->definition['base']);
    $base_field = $views_data['table']['base']['field'];
    $temp_view->add_item('default', 'field', $this->definition['base'], $this->definition['field']);

    // Add the correct argument for our relationship's base
    // ie the 'how to get back to base' argument.
    // The relationship definition tells us which one to use.
    $temp_view->add_item('default', 'argument', $this->definition['argument table'], // eg 'term_node',
    $this->definition['argument field'] //  eg 'tid'

    // Build the view. The creates the query object and produces the query
    // string but does not run any queries.

    // Now take the SelectQuery object the View has built and massage it
    // somewhat so we can get the SQL query from it.
    $subquery = $temp_view->build_info['query'];

    // Workaround until is fixed:
    // Remove all fields from the SELECT except the base id.
    $fields = &$subquery->getFields();
    foreach (array_keys($fields) as $field_name) {
      // The base id for this subquery is stored in our definition.
      if ($field_name != $this->definition['field']) {

    // Make every alias in the subquery safe within the outer query by
    // appending a namespace to it, '_inner' by default.
    $tables = &$subquery->getTables();
    foreach (array_keys($tables) as $table_name) {
      $tables[$table_name]['alias'] .= $this->subquery_namespace;
      // Namespace the join on every table.
      if (isset($tables[$table_name]['condition'])) {
        $tables[$table_name]['condition'] = $this->condition_namespace($tables[$table_name]['condition']);
    // Namespace fields.
    foreach (array_keys($fields) as $field_name) {
      $fields[$field_name]['table'] .= $this->subquery_namespace;
      $fields[$field_name]['alias'] .= $this->subquery_namespace;
    // Namespace conditions.
    $where = &$subquery->conditions();
    $this->alter_subquery_condition($subquery, $where);
    // Not sure why, but our sort order clause doesn't have a table.
    // TODO: the call to add_item() above to add the sort handler is probably
    // wrong -- needs attention from someone who understands it.
    // In the meantime, this works, but with a leap of faith...
    $orders = &$subquery->getOrderBy();
    foreach ($orders as $order_key => $order) {
      // But if we're using a whole view, we don't know what we have!
      if ($options['subquery_view']) {
        list($sort_table, $sort_field) = explode('.', $order_key);
      $orders[$sort_table . $this->subquery_namespace . '.' . $sort_field] = $order;

    // The query we get doesn't include the LIMIT, so add it here.
    $subquery->range(0, 1);

    // Extract the SQL the temporary view built.
    $subquery_sql = $subquery->__toString();

    // Replace the placeholder with the outer, correlated field.
    // Eg, change the placeholder ':users_uid' into the outer field 'users.uid'.
    // We have to work directly with the SQL, because putting a name of a field
    // into a SelectQuery that it does not recognize (because it's outer) just
    // makes it treat it as a string.
    $outer_placeholder = ':' . str_replace('.', '_', $this->definition['outer field']);
    $subquery_sql = str_replace($outer_placeholder, $this->definition['outer field'], $subquery_sql);

    return $subquery_sql;

   * Recursive helper to add a namespace to conditions.
   * Similar to _views_query_tag_alter_condition().
   * (Though why is the condition we get in a simple query 3 levels deep???)
  function alter_subquery_condition(QueryAlterableInterface $query, &$conditions) {
    foreach ($conditions as $condition_id => &$condition) {
      // Skip the #conjunction element.
      if (is_numeric($condition_id)) {
        if (is_string($condition['field'])) {
          $condition['field'] = $this->condition_namespace($condition['field']);
        elseif (is_object($condition['field'])) {
          $sub_conditions = &$condition['field']->conditions();
          $this->alter_subquery_condition($query, $sub_conditions);

   * Helper function to namespace query pieces.
   * Turns '' into ''.
  function condition_namespace($string) {
    return str_replace('.', $this->subquery_namespace . '.', $string);

   * Called to implement a relationship in a query.
   * This is mostly a copy of our parent's query() except for this bit with
   * the join class.
  function query() {
    // Figure out what base table this relationship brings to the party.
    $table_data = views_fetch_data($this->definition['base']);
    $base_field = empty($this->definition['base field']) ? $table_data['table']['base']['field'] : $this->definition['base field'];


    $def = $this->definition;
    $def['table'] = $this->definition['base'];
    $def['field'] = $base_field;
    $def['left_table'] = $this->table_alias;
    $def['left_field'] = $this->field;
    if (!empty($this->options['required'])) {
      $def['type'] = 'INNER';

    if ($this->options['subquery_regenerate']) {
      // For testing only, regenerate the subquery each time.
      $def['left_query'] = $this->left_query($this->options);
    else {
      // Get the stored subquery SQL string.
      $cid = 'views_relationship_groupwise_max:' . $this->view->name . ':' . $this->view->current_display . ':' . $this->options['id'];
      $cache = cache_get($cid, 'cache_views_data');
      if (isset($cache->data)) {
        $def['left_query'] = $cache->data;
      else {
        $def['left_query'] = $this->left_query($this->options);
        cache_set($cid, $def['left_query'], 'cache_views_data');

    if (!empty($def['join_handler']) && class_exists($def['join_handler'])) {
      $join = new $def['join_handler'];
    else {
      $join = new views_join_subquery();

    $join->definition = $def;
    $join->adjusted = TRUE;

    // use a short alias for this:
    $alias = $def['table'] . '_' . $this->table;

    $this->alias = $this->query->add_relationship($alias, $join, $this->definition['base'], $this->relationship);

Related topics

2 string references to 'views_handler_relationship_groupwise_max'
taxonomy_views_data in sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/modules/
Implements hook_views_data().
user_views_data in sites/all/modules/ulmus/views/modules/
Implements hook_views_data().



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